Introduction to basic concepts of topography and cartography. Surface’s reference of distances and altitudes in topography. Measurements (units, accuracy, angular and linear error comparison). Signing and Marking surveying point’s methods. Straight line implementation. Description and detailed presentation of instruments (Modern Theodolite, Tilting Level). Distance measurement (Mechanically Optically, Electromagnetically). Measurements of horizontal and vertical angles with Total Station (measurements at two telescope positions, Iterative Method, Direction’s Method). Topography’s Fundamental Problems. Solving of polygonal routes and method of error correction. Altimetry (geometric, trigonometric). Surveys (tape measurements, use of goniometrical instruments, modern theodolite method – total station). Topographical Drawings (design and use of grid, scales). Introduction to Geoinformatics, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), web maps. WEB GIS.
Hellenic Geodetic Reference System 1987 or HGRS87 or GGRS87. Hellenic Terrestrial Reference System 2007 (HTRS07) specified for the Hellenic Positioning System (HEPOS) project, is GPS based and is compatible with European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89). HTRS07 is used for cadastral surveys.
Use of topographic javelins and plumb, javelin alignment. Straight line implementation by using javelins. Distance measurement using tape and javelins. Terrain measurement using tape measure: Method of triangles, Method of rays, Method of Cartesian coordinates. Use of Level instrument, routing measurements, solving and error correction. Use of Modern Theodolite: Centering – Leveling – Target Acquisition – Reading horizontal and vertical circle. Routing implementation, measurements of distances and angles, sketch. Ensure of surveying points. Total Station surveying. Calculate coordinates of route’s surveying points. Grid design.
Objectives – Learning outcomes
The aim of the course is to make students competent, both by transferring a range of Earth’s surface with a given accuracy in the drawing paper with all the physical and technical details, and be able to draw on the ground a new Technical Work with the required accuracy. Furthermore, to familiarize them with all the latest technology and research achievements in the scientific field of Geoinformatics.
Prerequisite knowledge: Mathematics
Teaching / learning methods: learning by blackboard using and ppt. presentations.
Method of Grading: Final written exam, homework, assessment of laboratory exercises.
1. Graikousis G. – Lagos A. (2011), Principles of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Sigchroni Ekdotiki Publications, Athens.
2. Kofitsas J. (2009), Surveying Courses, Ion Publications, Athens.
3. Vlachos D. (1980), Surveying Courses, Volume A, Thessaloniki.
4. Pardalis N. (1983), Classical & Electronic Geodesy Courses, Volumes A and B Symmetria Publications, Athens.
5. Rueger J.M. (1996), Electronic Distance Measurement. An Introduction. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, NY.